The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and causes over 200 million cases and 400.000 deaths per year, with the African region accounting for over 90% of the disease burden. Insecticide-based vector control tools are the most important control strategy for malaria, targeting the adult female Anopheles mosquitoes. Indeed, insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying accounted for over 80% of the reductions in case numbers seen between 2000 and 2015. Malaria cases are now increasing again, closely mirroring the increase in mosquitos that are insecticide resistant. Intriguingly, however, the increase in malaria cases cannot be explained by increased insecticide resistance alone. In some regions, most collected mosquitoes are insecticide resistant and yet no increase of malaria cases is observed; this suggests a direct impact of insecticide-based vector control on the parasite. The impact of vector control on the parasite could be an effect of the insecticide-resistance phenotype of the host, which interferes with parasite development or a direct detrimental effect of insecticides (or metabolites thereof) on the parasites within the mosquito. Despite our reliance on vector control strategies, there is a near complete lack of knowledge about how insecticides impact replication of malaria parasites in mosquitoes and their subsequent transmission.